- n. [语][计] 句子，命题；宣判，判决
- vt. 判决，宣判
CET4 TEM4 考 研 TOEFL CET6
1、sent- + -ence.
2、sent- => thought, opinion, meaning, judgment. => sentence: 宣判，判决，命题，句子。
来自古法语 sentence,裁决，判断，决定，来自拉丁语 sententia,裁决，决定，表达思想，现在 分词格名词形式于 sentire,感觉，感知，发表意见，来自 PIE*sent,感觉，词源同 sense.引申词 义教条，训导，格言等。后主要用于语法格指句子，即一个完整的表达。
- sentence:  ‘Complete grammatical unit’ is a comparatively recent meaning of sentence, which only emerged in English in the 15th century. Its Latin ancestor sententia originally meant ‘feeling’, for it was a derivative of sentīre ‘feel’ (source also of English sense, sentiment, etc). It subsequently broadened out to ‘opinion, judgment’, which was the starting point for the use of English sentence for ‘judicial declaration of punishment’. Sententia also came to denote ‘meaning’, and hence ‘meaning expressed in words’ and ‘maxim’.
The former lies behind the grammatical sense of English sentence, while the latter survives in the derived adjective sententious .
=> sense, sententious
- sentence (n.)
- c. 1200, "doctrine, authoritative teaching; an authoritative pronouncement," from Old French sentence "judgment, decision; meaning; aphorism, maxim; statement of authority" (12c.) and directly from Latin sententia "thought, way of thinking, opinion; judgment, decision," also "a thought expressed; aphorism, saying," from sentientem, present participle of sentire "be of opinion, feel, perceive" (see sense (n.)). Loss of first -i- in Latin by dissimilation.
From early 14c. as "judgment rendered by God, or by one in authority; a verdict, decision in court;" from late 14c. as "understanding, wisdom; edifying subject matter." From late 14c. as "subject matter or content of a letter, book, speech, etc.," also in reference to a passage in a written work. Sense of "grammatically complete statement" is attested from mid-15c. "Meaning," then "meaning expressed in words." Related: Sentential.
- sentence (v.)
- "to pass judgment," c. 1400, from sentence (n.). Related: Sentenced; sentencing.
- 1. He stood emotionless as he heard the judge pass sentence.
- 2. If he is caught again he will be given a custodial sentence.
- 3. His nine-month sentence was overturned by Appeal Court judge Lord Justice Watkins.
- 4. These rules tell us how a sentence is broken down into phrases.
- 5. Nothing other than an immediate custodial sentence could be justified.
[ sentence 造句 ]