后缀:-en ①[动词后缀]

表示做、使成为...、使变成...

shorten 使缩短

gladden 使快活

harden 使变硬

flatten 使变平

strengthen 加强

moisten 弄湿,使湿

deepen 加深,使深

sharpen 削尖

rechen 使富

quicken 加快

darken 使黑,变黑

youthen 变年轻

heighten 加高,提高

fatten 使肥

lengthen 使延长,伸长

straighten 弄直,使直

broaden 加宽

sweeten 使变甜

thicken 使变厚

soften 弄软,使软化

②[形容词后缀]

表示由...制成的,含有...质的,似...的

wooden 木制的

leaden 铅制的

woolen 羊毛制的

golden 金质的,似金的

silken 丝的,如丝的

wheaten 小麦制的

earthen 泥质的,泥制的

waxen 蜡制的,似蜡的

ashen 灰的,似灰的

oaken 橡树制的

③[名词后缀]

1、表示人

warden 看守人

citizen 公民

vixen 刁妇,泼妇

denizen 居民

2、表示小称

maiden 少女

chicken 小鸡

kitten 小猫

词根词缀:callus-, callous-

【来源及含义】Latin: hardened skin, thick skin; a knob

【相关词根词缀】 Cross references directly, or indirectly, involving the "skin": chorio-; cicatri- (scar); cori-; cuti-; hymen-; lepido- (scab, scale); papulo- (pimple); psoro- (itch, mange); pustu- (blister, pimple); rhytid- (wrinkle); scabio- (mange, itchy); sebo- (grease, oil).

【同源单词】callositas, callosity, callous, calloused, callousness, callus

词根词缀:pago-, pag- (cold, freezing)

【来源及含义】Greek: cold, frost, freezing; fixed or hardened; united

【相关描述】Be aware that there is another Greek pago- unit that refers to a "peak"; however, it is used by biologists and ecologists in the restricted sense of "foothill".

【相关词根词缀】 Cross references of word families that are related directly or indirectly to "winter, freezing, frost, and/or cold": algid- (cold, chilly); cheimo-, chimo- (winter, cold); crymo-, krymo- (cold, chill, frost); cryo-, kryo-; (cold, freezing); psychro- (cold); rhigo- (cold, frost; shiver).

【同源单词】pagon, pagophagia, pagophile, pagophilia, pagophilous, Pagophilus

词根词缀:sclero-, scler-

【来源及含义】Greek: skleros tough, toughen; hard, hardening; dry up

【同源单词】arteriosclerosis, multiple sclerosis, otosclerosis, phlebosclerosis, sclera, scleradenitis