- vi. 打扮整齐；使显干净
- adj. 整洁的
- vt. 打扮整齐
- n. 云杉
2. Prussia => *Pruce => spruce (denoting Prussia or something originating in Prussia).
来自 Spruce,拼写变体自 Pruce,普鲁士，欧洲历史地名，德意志境内最强大的邦国，后统一了 德意志。该树因从普鲁士进口到英国而得名，是制作家具的优质木材，也是奢华的代名词。 因此，引申词义装饰，打扮。
- spruce: Spruce ‘neat’  and spruce the tree  are completely different words, of course, but they could have a common origin – in Spruce, the old English name for Prussia. Spruce the tree was originally the spruce fir, literally the ‘Prussian fir’. And it is thought that the adjective spruce may have come from the expression spruce leather ‘Prussian leather’, which denoted a particularly fine sort of leather, used for making jackets. The word itself is an unexplained alteration of Pruce ‘Prussia’, which was acquired via Old French from medieval Latin Prussia.
- spruce (n.)
- 1660s, "evergreen tree, fir," from spruse (adj.) "made of spruce wood" (early 15c.), literally "from Prussia," from Spruce, Sprws (late 14c.), unexplained alterations of Pruce "Prussia," from an Old French form of Prussia.
Spruce seems to have been a generic term for commodities brought to England by Hanseatic merchants (especially beer, boards and wooden chests, and leather), and the tree thus was believed to be particular to Prussia, which for a time was figurative in England as a land of luxuries. Compare spruce (adj.).
As a distinct species of evergreen tree from 1731. Nearly all pines have long, soft needles growing in groups of two (Scotch) to five (white); spruce and fir needles grow singly. Spruce needles are squarish and sharp; fir needles are short and flat. Cones of the fir stand upright; cones of a spruce hang before falling.
- spruce (v.)
- "to make trim or neat," 1590s, from spruce (adj.). Related: Spruced; sprucing.
- spruce (adj.)
- "neat, smart in dress and appearance, dapper, brisk," 1580s, from spruce leather (mid-15c.; see spruce (n.)), a type of leather imported from Prussia in the 1400s and 1500s which was used in England to make a popular style of jerkin that was considered smart-looking.
- 1. Early settlers built frames of spruce, maple and pine.
- 2. It was made of soft lumber, spruce by the look of it.
- 3. He looked spruce in his best clothes.
- 4. Chris was looking spruce in his stiff-collared black shirt and new short hair cut.
- 5. Following in his steps, I passed through damp spruce woods to an open cliff.
- 我跟在他的后面, 穿过一片潮湿的云杉树林,来到一片开阔的峭壁前.
[ spruce 造句 ]