- n. 干；茎；船首；血统
- vt. 阻止；除去…的茎；给…装柄
- vi. 阻止；起源于某事物；逆行
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来自古英语 stemn,植物茎，树干，来自 Proto-Germanic*stamniz,站立，来自 PIE*sta,站立，词 源同 stand,state.引申诸相关词义。
- stem: The stem [OE] of a tree is etymologically the upright part, the part that ‘stands’ up. The word comes from prehistoric Germanic *stamniz, a derivative of the base *sta- ‘stand’ (which also produced English stand). The application to the ‘front of a vessel’ (as in from stem to stern) comes from the notion of an ‘upright beam’ at the prow (and originally the stern also) of a boat, which dates back to the Anglo-Saxon period. Stem ‘stop’  was borrowed from Old Norse stemma, a descendant of prehistoric Germanic *stamjan.
This was formed from the base *stam- ‘stop, check’, which also produced English stammer and stumble.
=> stand, statue; stammer, stumble
- stem (n.)
- Old English stemn, stefn "stem of a plant, trunk of a tree," also "either end-post of a ship," from Proto-Germanic *stamniz (cognates: Old Saxon stamm, Old Norse stafn "stem of a ship;" Danish stamme, Swedish stam "trunk of a tree;" Old High German stam, German Stamm), from suffixed form of PIE root *sta- "to stand" (see stet).
Meaning "support of a wineglass" is from 1835. Meaning "unchanging part of a word" is from 1830. Stems slang for "legs" is from 1860. The nautical sense is preserved in the phrase stem to stern "along the full length" (of a ship), attested from 1620s. Stem cell attested by 1885.
- stem (v.1)
- "to hold back," early 14c., from a Scandinavian source, such as Old Norse stemma "to stop, dam up; be stopped, abate," from Proto-Germanic *stamjan (cognates: Swedish stämma, Old Saxon stemmian, Middle Dutch stemon, German stemmen "stop, resist, oppose"), from PIE root *stem- "to strike against something" (cognates: Lithuanian stumiu "thrust, push"). Not connected to stem (n.). Related: Stemmed; stemming. Phrase to stem the tide is literally "to hold back the tide," but often is confused with stem (v.2) "make headway against."
Verbal phrase stems from (1932, American English), perhaps is from stem (v.) in the sense "to rise, mount up, have origin in" (1570s), or is influenced by or translates German stammen aus, probably from a figurative sense represented by English stem (n.) in the sense of "stock of a family, line of descent" (c. 1540; cognates: family tree, and German stammvater "tribal ancestor," literally "stem-father").
- stem (v.2)
- "make headway by sailing, head in a certain course," late 14c., literally "to push the stem through," from stem (n.) in the "ship post" sense (here the post at the prow of the ship). Related: Stemmed; stemming.
- 1. Twist the string carefully around the second stem with the other hand.
- 2. Cut them off cleanly through the stem just below the node.
- 3. The stinging nettle has a square stem and little hairs.
- 4. He chewed the stem of his pipe and eyed her sceptically.
- 5. Make a slit in the stem about half an inch long.
[ stem 造句 ]